The formation of the fauna of the Belarussian Lakeland was taking place during long period of time, after the going of the last glacier. Near 15 thousand years ago consistently changed different zones: tundra, forest tundra, pine forest, etc. Animal world changed respectively. Not all animal species that lived here many centuries ago, live here now. For example, ancient bison that used to live here many years ago, vanished completely. Nevertheless, red beer that was exterminated by an unlimited hunting is living here again due to human nature recreational acivity.
Animal world of the National park is simultaneously typical for the belarusian-Baltic region and is unique due to low economy activity exploration of this territory. Low level of “anthropressing” fixed system of preserving animal world, also high mosaic structure of landscapes, the combination of agricultural grounds, forest, meadow, lake and river ecosystems with hardly accessible forest-swamp massive create conditions for maintaining a high diversity of the animal world including a big group of species, that have the national and international protection status.
On the territory of the National park are registered the existence of 312 species of vertebrate animals, including 216 bird species, 45 mammal species, 34 fish species, 12 amphibia species, 5 reptile species.
In lakes and rivers located on the territory of the National park “Braslavskie ozera” currently inhabit 34 fish species, relating to 11 families. In lakes there are 32 fish species, in waterways – 29 species. Among them 30 aborigine species and 4 introduced species. Among them there are two species registered in the Red Book of the Republic of Belarus - Coregonus albula and Osmerus eperlanus eperlanus m. spirinchus.
In the structure of the animal world of the park, avifauna is of the special value. On the territory of the National park “Braslavskie ozera” for the period of researches were revealed 217 bird species which belong to 18 classes, that is 67,9 % from the whole Belarusian fauna in which composition are nested species, also regular migrants, that have ecological connections with the explored territory, separate species, noted during researches.
Comparatively to the other land mammals, bird fauna on the territory of the National park can be characterized by the biggest diversity. As mentioned above, here are registered 194 nested species, which is 76,1% from the total composition of nested birds in Belarus. This index is very high that can be explained by the excessively large diversity of biotopes. Only migrant and/or winter birds are 23 species. 17 species more are presumably nested which means they were registered during the nesting period in an appropriate habitat, meanwhile, their status wasn’t established properly or the specie haven’t been registered as a nested one for more than 5 years.
The territory of the national park is characterized by mosaic landscape, the combination of agricultural grounds, forest, meadow, lake and river ecosystems with hardly accessible swamp-forest areas, that influences positively on the structure of mammals. Totally on the territory of the national park “Braslavskie ozera” there are 45 mammal species, which is 58,4% from the total Belarusian fauna, dividing into 6 classes. The most numerous group is representatives of the class Rodentia (18 species). The most fully represented group of animals is Carnivora (13 species) and association of the hoofed animals of the National park “Braslavskie ozera” characterizing almost the fullest (except bison) species representation typical for Belarus.
Elk is a typical and outstanding representative of the mammal fauna and is characterized by high number. Red deer on the territory of the national park is registered in small numbers on the territory; european roe, on the opposite is rather numerous. The number of boar is maintained on an excessive level for the region.
Among carnivore mammals here inhabit raccoon dog, fox, marten, ferret, weasel, ermine. The most numerous species from the class Rodents is a squirrel, white hare, grey hare. Five mammal species of the region were registered in the Red Book of Belarus: pond bat, northern bat, lynx, brown bear, badger.
Amphibia and reptiles.
According to the complex herpetology division of Belarus, modern territory of the National park “Braslavskie ozera” belongs to the northern part, characterized by specific, comparatively poor specie composition of amphibias and reptiles.
Currently class amphibias on the territory of the National park are represented by 12 species, 2 of them are registered in the Red Book of the Republic of Belarus. Representatives of the group – mostly habitants of the swamp-forest complex. Triton sporadically dwells in a shallow water still reservoirs, not reaching high intensity of the population, though.
Typical species are two rana species – common frog and moor frog.